Research on novel pharmaceuticals is a targeted approach to provide for modern healthcare requirements. There are two main phases involved in creating a novel therapeutic medicinal substance: drug discovery & development. New targets (enzymes or receptors) must be found and characterised before novel lead compounds may be synthesised, tested for biological activity in vitro and/or in vivo, and characterised physicochemically. Drug development may take anywhere from 10–12 years, during which time scientists from many fields must work together closely. The term pharmacokinetics is used to describe the study of the drugs time course inside the body (the magnitude and duration of the drugs systemic exposure), which includes information on the drugs Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) profile. Pharmacokinetic parameters are often determined from blood or plasma drug concentration measurements. The study of the causal chain between a drugs pharmacokinetic, physical, chemical properties, the dosage form or the delivery system into which it is incorporated, the route of the administration, and the resulting therapeutic including the toxic response are at the heart of the biopharmaceutics, which encompasses both basic and applied research.