This book is geared toward students at the undergraduate and graduate levels and focuses on the basics of plant physiology. This book discusses the distinct mechanisms of water and ion transport, as well as the various metabolic events that are essential for plant development and result from plants’ ability to capture photons from sunlight, convert inorganic forms of nutrition into organic forms, and synthesize high energy molecules such as ATP. In addition, this book describes the various metabolic events that result from plants’ ability to convert inorganic forms of nutrition into organic forms. The detection and transduction of light signals work in perfect coordination with a broad range of plant growth regulators to regulate numerous plant developmental processes, and this book investigates many facets of this relationship. In addition, this research studies the many structural and biochemical adaptation mechanisms that plants have developed to allow them to endure a broad range of abiotic stress con ditions (such as salt, temperature, floods, and drought), as well as biotic interactions (such as attacks by pathogens and herbivores). The huge number of secondary metabolites that plants generate and that are vital to human health as well as their uses in biotechnology and agriculture are discussed. Plant physiology is the study of how plants work to maintain their health and growth. Photosynthesis, respiration, and the breakdown of organic molecules are all examples of plant metabolism that provide plants with the energy they need to survive and thrive.