Industrial biotechnology has become the primary driver of sustainable technologies, advancing green chemistry, reuse technology, and the bio-based economy. In fact, utilizing enzyme technology and/or fermentation processes, a broad variety of chemical compounds, including fine and bulk chemicals, may now be produced from non-fossil, renewable resources including sugars and cellulosic, plant, and animal-derived oils. Industrial biotechnology will spread quickly across the chemical, agricultural, food, and environmental sectors as a result of the ecological and technical advantages it offers. The goal of this book is to provide a complete overview of industrial biotechnology, including its enabling technologies and the many fields in which it has found application. This book discusses fundamental and enabling technologies in microbial biotechnology, including genomics, bioinformatics, metabolic engineering, modelling, directed evolution of the enzymes, fermentation technology, biocatalysis, systems biology, nanotechnology, and downstream processing. This book covers main aspects in industrial biotechnology, including the production of microorganisms for commercial purposes, the use of thermophile bacteria in industrial microbiology, the use of microbes in waste water treatment and agriculture, and the creation of microorganism-derived products while comprehending the basic principles of microbial development, such as the phases of fermentation processes. The book goes on to examine enzyme reactors and associated technologies, enzyme genetic engineering, enzyme protein engineering, and the generation of biological fuel.